Superlattice To Nanoelectronics Pdf Download
Of all the thousands of minerals as jewelry, only a few are suitable for electronic devices. Silicon, in more than 95% of all electronic devices, GaAs-based III-V semiconductors, in the rest of the optical and optoelectronic devices, and less than 1% used in all the rest such as lasers, capacitors, transducers, magnetic disks, and switching devices in DVD and CD disks, comprise a very limited lists of elements. For this reason, Esaki and Tsu [1, 2] introduced the concept of man-made superlattices to enrich the list of semiconductors useful for electronic devices. In essence, superlattice is nothing more than a way to assemble two different materials stacked into a periodic array for the purpose of mimicking a continuum similar to the assemble of atoms and molecules into solids by nature. Although it was a very important idea, the technical world simply would not support such activity without showing some unique features . We found it in the NDC, negative differential conductance, the foundation of a high speed amplifier. In retrospect, man-made superlattice offers far more as well as branching off into areas such as soft X-ray mirror , IR lasers , as well as oscillators and detectors in THz frequencies . The very reason why such venture took off is because the availability of new tools such as the molecular beam epitaxy, MBE, with in situ RHEED, better diagnostic tools such as luminescence and Raman scattering, the all important TEM and SEM, etc. After the introduction of scanning tunneling microscopy, STM; and atomic force microscopy, AFM, stage is set for further extension of quantum wells, QWs, into three-dimensional structures, the quantum dots, QDs. The demand of nanometer regime is due to the requirement of phase coherency: the electrons must be able to preserve its phase coherency at least in a single period, on reaching the Brillouin zone in k-space. However, we shall see why new problems developed in reaching the nanometer regime. First of all, when the wave function is comparable to the size, approximately few nanometers in length, it is very similar to a variety of defects. Strong coupling to those defects results in random noise, the telegraph switching . Thus we are facing great problems in pushing nanodevices. However, some of the new frontiers in these nanostructures are truly worthy of great efforts. For example, chemistry deals with molecules largely governed by the symmetry relationship within a molecule. In solids the symmetry is governed by the translational symmetry of unit cells. Now, with boundaries and shape to contend with, we are dealing with a new kind of chemistry, involving the symmetry of surfaces and boundaries as well as shapes. For example, we know that it is unlikely a tetrahedral-shaped QD may be constructed with individual linear molecules. Catalysis is still a matter of mystery even today. Now we are talking about adding boundaries and shape for nanochemistry. The possibility of crossing over to include biological research of nanostructures is even more spectacular, which will ultimately lead mankind into the physics of living things.
Superlattice To Nanoelectronics Pdf Download
Figure 2a shows a type I-superlattice, i.e., an electron in a conduction band incident to the left of another conduction band separated by an interface and a type III-superlattice in (b) where the right side is a valence band at the same energy.
In fact these problems discussed are serious, however, the most serious problem is I/O [14, 20]. We reduce size to minimize real-estate. However, contacts are equal potentials, which call for metals. Nanosize metallic systems may be insolating, apart from the problem in lithography. Most of the bench-top demonstrations of Nanoelectronics have in-plane device configurations, not a real device. At this point I can conclude that with all the talk of nanoelectronics, the merit is perhaps due to special features, such as the THz devices, the QCL, and the new expectations in graphene-based electronics. It is true that MOSFET has been reduced to below 30 nm for the source-drain length, but there are still approximately 400 electrons in the channel-gate system, according to Ye . Quantum computing is a somewhat unrealistic dream, because binary system makes computing possible, with the unique feature that on or off represents time-independent permanent states.
Quantum Cascade Laser was first succeeded at BTL under F. Capasso . The idea was even patented before BTL succeeded. However, the patented version would not work because when many periods are in series, any fluctuation can start domain oscillation as pointed out by Gunn many years ago. Therefore, I shall single out QCL as an example how the problem is checked by introducing components each controlled separately as in QCL, with the three major components, the injector, the optical transition from the upper state to the lower state, and the collector. That is the direction of the superlattice, divided into components, together functioning as a device. With the exception of resistive switches, almost all devices such as MOSFET, flash memory, detectors, etc. involve components. In fact, the first optically pumped quantum well laser using very thin GaAs-AlGaAs QWs constitutes a step in the direction of utilizing QWs as components in forming a quantum device .
Application of an electric field to a weakly coupled semiconductor superlattice gives rise to an increase in the coherent folded phonon, generated by a femto-second optical pulse . The condition is whenever the stark energy eFd > energy of the phonon, in this case, the FP phonon. Why did it take 35 years after the first article by Tsu and Döhler , to realize a phonon laser using superlattices? I want to make a comment from my years of doing research. Nobody is so brave in doing research in a relatively new field, although the instruments to fabricate devices involving superlattices are widely available. However, the complexity involved is sufficient in deterring most researchers. This study represents a step jump in the sophistication and careful design of the superlattice structure. I cannot fail to make a comment in regard to what Mark Reed told me about his study with pulling a gold wire while obtaining quantized conductance of the wire before it snapped. Some success is due to hard work, and others might be due to clever ideas and good timing. I would like to add from what happened today when Hashmi and I were jumping up and down for making a discovery. I said, "If you do something everybody else does, it is highly unlikely you would get anything new." The name of the game is to do something quite different!
The graphene adventure took off more than anything I have seen in my entire life of research in solid state and semiconductors. In a way it reminded me of porous silicon because it involves silicon, the most widely used materials in electronic industry. However, the real reason is the availability of facilities to create porous silicon. All one needs is a kitchen sink. Ultimately it did not make the grade because porous silicon is not robust and mechanically stable. Using exfoliation, a little flake can represent a single layer of graphite allowing many to participate in this endeavor. However, I predict that unless controlled growth of graphene can be realized, the feverish activity will cease if large-scale growth of graphene cannot be realized. There is another major problem to be overcome. Graphene, a two-dimensional entity with sp2 bonding configuration in reality does not exist, because we do not live in a two-dimensional world. And graphite consists of weak van der Waals bonding. Even in a single isolated layer, it is not graphene with only sp2 bonds, because any real surface consists of surface reconstruction as well as adsorbents. And a stack of graphene forming graphite is best considered as lubricant, without mechanical stability and robustness. The answer lies in creating a graphene-based superlattice. Figure 7 shows a computed Graphene/Si superlattice using DFT  How to realize such a structure? Intercalation method would not work because it is hardly possible to introduce something uniform into the space between graphite planes. However, we know that nature creates coal with the Kaolin molecules, basically silicates and aluminates , in between the graphite layers. What represents in Figure 8 may very well be an empty wish, however, at this reporting, we are working toward growing Si/C superlattice.
Band structure of graphene/Si superlattice with E F = 0. Solid and dashed are for the graphene and Si, respectively.E F is shifted above the linear dispersion at the k-point.
When we are working with a macroscopic entity, nature shows us the way-translational symmetry, normally referred to as solid state physics. As we know that nothing is perfect so that we resort to statistics to arrive at an average such as current, flow, etc. for the description of cause-effect as voltage-current, so useful for the description as well as the design of devices. As the size shrinks to dimensions in nanometers, the defects may be no more than zero or one in such way that statistical average does not apply. Many of the bench-top experiments I mentioned depends on what and where the device is, and whether we can control them or not. We can use statistics if there are many such devices in an ensemble average, but not summing and averaging the individual scatterings! In simple term, translational symmetry does not play a part, and therefore, it is not solid state physics, but perhaps we should use the term nano-solid. Moreover, if the size is still represented by several unit cell distances, superlattice definitely is the only definable entity. In fact, even in the very first article , we pointed out that all one need is three periods in forming a superlattice, a QD in three-dimension.